Thursday, September 1, 2016

Today in History for Sept. 1, 2016

Johnny Mack Brown
Sept. 1, 1557 – French navigator and explorer Jacques Cartier passed away at the age of 65 in St. Malo, France. Cartier claimed what is now Canada for France and was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas," after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island).

Sept. 1, 1773 – Phillis Wheatley, 20, published “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral.”

Sept. 1, 1775 - Richard Penn and Arthur Lee, representing the Continental Congress, presented the so-called Olive Branch Petition to the Earl of Dartmouth. Britain’s King George III, however, refused to receive the petition, which, written by John Dickinson, appealed directly to the king and expressed hope for reconciliation between the colonies and Great Britain.

Sept. 1, 1807 – Former U.S. vice president Aaron Burr was acquitted of treason in U.S. Circuit Court in Richmond, Va. due to lack of witnesses, despite the full force of the Jefferson administration’s political influence against him. Burr was accused of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Spanish territory in Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic.

Sept. 1, 1813 – The Kimbell-James Massacre occurred around 3 p.m. at Ransom Kimball’s large cabin about one mile from Fort Sinquefield in Clarke County, Ala., leaving 13 women and children dead. Six survivors escaped to Fort Sinquefield.

Sept. 1, 1824 – During his extended tour of the United States, the Marquis de Lafayette visited Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

Sept. 1, 1838 – American explorer William Clark died at the age of 68 in St. Louis, Mo. Along with Meriwether Lewis, Clark helped lead the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean, and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United States.

Sept. 1, 1841 – James G. Butler was commissioned as Monroe County, Alabama’s Circuit Court Clerk.

Sept. 1, 1850 – National Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder Jim O’Rourke was born in Bridgeport, Conn. During his career, he played for the Middleton Mansfields, the Boston Red Stockings/Boston Red Caps, the Providence Grays, the Buffalo Bisons, the New York Giants and the Washington Senators. He also managed the Bisons and the Senators and was inducted into the Hall of Fame in 1945.

Sept. 1, 1850 – P.T. Barnum brought Jenny Lind to New York. Lind, the “Swedish Nightingale,” was a gifted soprano who was wildly popular in Europe, and Barnum became aware of her in 1849, as she was wrapping up her third London season. The tour was a huge financial success, although Lind was uncomfortable with Barnum’s publicity tactics.

Sept. 1, 1859 - A solar superstorm peaked with a massive coronal ejection heading directly toward Earth. Known as the Carrington Event, this powerful geomagnetic storm caused the failure of telegraph systems, and auroras were seen all over the world.

Sept. 1, 1861 – During the Civil War, a skirmish was fought near Fort Scott, Kansas.

Sept. 1, 1861 – During the Civil War, a skirmish was fought at Bennett’s Mill, Mo. A three-day Federal operation also began in Jefferson County, Mo.

Sept. 1, 1861 – During the Civil War, a skirmish was fought at Blue Creek and another at Burlington, West Virginia.

Sept. 1, 1862 – During the Civil War, a skirmish occurred at Huntsville, Ala.

Sept. 1, 1862 - Confederates captured Lexington, Ky., and Union General John Pope evacuated Centerville, Va.

Sept. 1, 1862 - In Virginia, the 90-minute Battle of Chantilly took place two days after the Confederate victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run. Confederate General Robert E. Lee attacked retreating Union troops in the middle of an intense thunderstorm. Union officer Philip Kearny was killed when he accidentally rode behind Confederate lines at Chantilly, and General Robert E. Lee later returned Kearny's body under a flag of truce. Confederate casualties numbered about 500, while the Union lost 700.

Sept. 1, 1862 – During the Civil War, skirmishes were fought at Morganfield, Uniontown, and Tait’s Ferry on the Kentucky River in Kentucky; at Putnam, Neosho and Spring River, Missouri; near Denmark, Tenn.; and at Glenville, West Virginia.

Sept. 1, 1863 – During the Civil War, various skirmishes occurred at Will’s Creek, Davis’, Tap’s and Neal’s Gaps, or Devil’s Backbone, Ala., leading up to the Chickamauga Campaign.

Sept. 1, 1863 – During the Civil War, skirmishes were fought at Backbone Mountain and at Jenny Lind, Ark.; and at Barbee’s Crossroads, Corbin’s Crossroads, Leesburg, and near Port Conway, Virginia.

Sept. 1, 1863 – During the Civil War, Fort Smith, Ark. was occupied by Federal forces.

Sept. 1, 1863 – During the Civil War, a two-day Federal operation began from Paducah, Ky and Union City, Tenn. to Conyersville, Tenn. A Federal campaign from Natchez, Miss. to Harrisonburg, La. began.

Sept. 1, 1864 - Union Army General William Tecumseh Sherman laid siege to Atlanta, Ga., a critical Confederate hub, shelling civilians and cutting off supply lines. The Confederates, under General John Bell Hood, retreated, destroying the city's munitions as they went.

Sept. 1, 1864 – During the Civil War, the Confederate Army of Tennessee, under the command of Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood evacuated Atlanta, Ga. This came about because Union General William T. Sherman attacked Confederate General William Hardee at the Battle of Jonesboro. The burning of huge munitions and supply depots created fires that burned out of control, burning much of the railroad yard.

Sept. 1, 1864 – During the Civil War, skirmishes were fought near Ft. Smith and at Beatty’s Mill, Ark.; at Tipton, Mo.; at Leesburg, Va.; on Opequon Creek, in the Shenandoah Valley.

Sept. 1, 1864 – During the Civil War, a 28-day Federal operation began against Indians from Camp Grant to the North Fork of the Eel River, Calif. An 11-day Federal operation began against Indians in the Trinity River Valley, Calif. An eight-day Federal operation began in Johnson County, Mo.

Sept. 1, 1865 – During the Civil War, a skirmish was fought with Indians on the east side of the Powder River in the Montana Territory,

Sept. 1, 1869 - Historian Marie Bankhead Owen was born. Owen was appointed director of the Alabama Department of Archives and History in 1920 and ran the agency for 35 years. She finished and published her husband's influential four-volume History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography, published her own histories and textbooks, and successfully lobbied for the completion of the World War Memorial Building, which the became the ADAH's new home in 1940. Owen retired as director in 1955 and died on March 2, 1958, in Selma. She was inducted into the Alabama Women's Hall of Fame in 1975, and the ADAH stands as a lasting testament to her legacy.

Sept. 1, 1873 -San Francisco’s first cable car began regular service on this day.

Sept. 1, 1875 – American novelist Edgar Rice Burroughs, creator of the popular fictional character Tarzan, King of the Apes, was born in Chicago. The character captured the public’s imagination, spawning more than 40 novels, a comic book series, and numerous Hollywood films.

Sept. 1, 1888 - Author Clement Wood was born in Tuscaloosa, Ala.

Sept. 1, 1890 – Famous Alabama outlaw Rube Burrow single-handedly robbed the northbound Louisville & Nashville passenger train No. 6 on the Escambia River, northeast of Flomaton. This was his eighth and final train robbery.

Sept. 1, 1894 – E.J. Ricou was appointed Monroeville, Ala. postmaster, succeeding Mrs. M.C. McLean who had resigned.

Sept. 1, 1895 – Prof. C.C. Sellers’s School in the Axle community (in Monroe County, Ala.?) was scheduled to reopen at the start of the new school year.

Sept. 1, 1895 - Dr. W.R. Lambuth of Nashville, Tenn., the Secretary of the Foreign Mission Board of the M.E. Church, South, visited Monroeville, Ala. and “delivered three very interesting and instructive discourses” on this Sunday.

Sept. 1, 1896 – John D. Watson was commissioned as Monroe County, Alabama’s Sheriff.

Sept. 1, 1902 – “A Trip to the Moon,” arguably the first science-fiction film, premiered in France.

Sept. 1, 1904 – Johnny Mack Brown, nicknamed “The Dothan Antelope,” was born in Dothan, Ala. He would go on to star as a halfback at Alabama and help lead the Crimson Tide to the 1926 national title. He later had a long, successful career as an actor in Hollywood.

Sept. 1, 1906 - Jack Coombs of the American League’s Philadelphia Athletics pitched 24 innings against the Boston Red Sox.

Sept. 1, 1914 - Prof. J.M. Sowell department Monroeville, Ala. for Scottsboro, where he’d accepted a job as head of a school there.

Sept. 1, 1914 – Up to this date, reports showed that 1,094 bales of cotton had been ginned in Monroe County, Ala. from the 1914 crop, compared with 1,532 bales ginned prior to Sept. 1, 1913.

Sept. 1, 1915 – The Evergreen Courant reported that J.R. Myers of Owassa had been appointed registrar of Conecuh County, Ala. Under a new law, there was only one registrar for each county, instead of four as before.

Sept. 1, 1915 – L.W. Locklin visited Monroeville, Ala. and told The Monroe Journal that he’d recently sold his home and entire real estate holdings at Perdue Hill to a “northern party” was planned to locate a “Polish colony in that vicinity.”

Sept. 1, 1915 – Only 251 bales of cotton had been ginned in Monroe County from the 1915 crop prior to this date as compared with 1,094 bales ginned prior to Sept. 1, 1914.

Sept. 1, 1932 – The Bank of Evergreen officially opened for business, a little over a month after Evergreen’s old bank was closed for liquidation. O.C. McGehee was cashier of the bank. The building formerly occupied by the First National Bank was thoroughly renovated and repaired and all fixtures put in shape, as the home of the new institution. The building was already equipped with vaults and other necessary fixtures for banking business. Officers of the bank were W.M. Newton, president; W.K. Horton, vice-president; O.C. McGehee, cashier. Besides these men, the following are listed as stockholders: R. Millsap Jr., L.T. Rutland, C.A. Jones, C.P. Deming, George C. Stamps, W.A. Moore, J.G. Moore, L.W. Price, Robt. Long, Haiman Long, Hermione Newton McGehee and Dr. P.D. McGehee.

Sept. 1, 1934 - Following Alabama's lead, a nationwide textile strike began, with 15,000 Alabama workers among the 400,000 strikers nationwide. The Alabama strike, which had started in July, had survived threats of violence and even the brief abduction of strike leader John Dean. The largest walkout in Alabama and U.S. history at the time, the strike ended Sept. 22 after mediation efforts by the Roosevelt administration.

Sept. 1, 1937 – Reports showed that 2,309 bales of cotton had been ginned in Conecuh County, Ala. from the 1937 cotton crop prior to Sept. 1, compared to 3,111 bales ginned to the same date in 1936.

Sept. 1, 1939 – World War II began in Europe as Nazi Germany and Slovakia invaded Poland at 5:11 a.m. Britain and France, allied with Poland, entered the war two days later, but by then it was too late to save Poland.

Sept. 1, 1939 – The Wound Badge for Wehrmacht, SS, Kriegsmarine and Luftwaffe soldiers was instituted. The final version of the Iron Cross was also instituted on this date.

Sept. 1, 1939 – Adolf Hitler signed an order to begin the systematic euthanasia of mentally ill and disabled people.

Sept. 1, 1939 – E.T. Millsap was elected Commander of American Legion Post No. 61 of Monroe County during a meeting in Monroeville, Ala. Other elected officers included E.S. Gardner, Adjutant; Jim Sawyer, Vice Commander; Sullivan Murphy, Chaplain; W.E. Deer, Historian; and R.T. Daniels, Sergeant-At-Arms.

Sept. 1, 1939 – According to the cotton ginning census, only 348 bales of cotton had been ginned in Monroe County, Ala. prior to this date, compared to 5,967 bales ginned prior to Sept. 1, 1938. This shortage was due to high amounts of rain and wind.

Sept. 1, 1939 – According to the ginning census, only 375 bales of cotton had been ginned in Conecuh County, Ala., prior to this date, compared to 2,970 bales ginned prior to Sept. 1938.

Sept. 1, 1945 - The U.S. received official word of Japan's formal surrender that ended World War II.

Sept. 1, 1947 – American soldier and adventurer Frederick Russell Burnham passed away at the age of 86 in Santa Barbara, Calif. He is known for his service to the British South Africa Company and to the British Army in colonial Africa, and for teaching woodcraft to Robert Baden-Powell in Rhodesia. He helped inspire the founding of the international Scouting Movement.

Sept. 1, 1948 – The football teams at Evergreen and Repton began fall football practice in preparation for their season-opener against each other on Sept. 17 in Evergreen, Ala.

Sept. 1, 1950 – Army SFC Robert L. Booker of Conecuh County, Ala. and Army PFC Willie D. Daw of Escambia County, Ala. were killed in action in Korea.

Sept. 1, 1952 – Reports showed that 3,388 bales of cotton had been ginned in Conecuh County, Ala. from the crop of 1952 prior to 1952, compared with 5,403 bales in 1951.

Sept. 1, 1952 – “The Old Man and the Sea,” the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel by Ernest Hemingway, was first published.

Sept. 1, 1955 – Byron Warren became the new Ford dealer in Conecuh County, Ala. when he bought out the old Evergreen Motor Car Co. and changed the name to Warren Ford Co.

Sept. 1, 1964 - Pitcher Masanori Murakami became the first Japanese man to play in U.S. baseball’s major leagues. Murakami pitched a scoreless eighth inning for the San Francisco Giants in a 4-1 loss to the New York Mets in front of 39,379 fans at Shea Stadium.

Sept. 1, 1965 – Birmingham, Ala. native Lee May made his Major League Baseball debut, taking the field for the first time as a member of the Cincinnati Reds.

Sept. 1, 1966 - In a speech before 100,000 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, President Charles de Gaulle of France denounced U.S. policy in Vietnam and urged the U.S. government to pull its troops out of Southeast Asia. De Gaulle said that negotiations toward a settlement of the war could begin as soon as the United States committed to withdrawing its troops by a certain date. He and Prince Norodom Sihanouk signed a declaration calling for noninterference in the Indochinese peninsula by foreign nations.

Sept. 1, 1968 - Lt. Col. William A. Jones III led a mission near Dong Hoi, North Vietnam, to rescue a downed pilot. Locating the pilot, who had activated his emergency locator beacon, Colonel Jones attacked a nearby gun emplacement. On his second pass, Colonel Jones’ aircraft was hit and the cockpit of his Douglas A-1H Skyraider was set ablaze. He tried to eject, but the ejection system failed. He then returned to base and reported the exact position of the downed pilot before receiving medical treatment for his burns. The downed pilot was rescued by helicopter the next day. Colonel Jones was nominated for the Medal of Honor for his actions during the rescue attempt, but he died in an aircraft accident in the United States before he could be presented with the award.

Sept. 1, 1969 – Trần Thiện Khiêm became Prime Minister of South Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.

Sept. 1, 1970 – E.G. Kivette got 54-1/2 cents per pound for his first of the season cotton bale from Eugene Darby of the E-Z Flo Chemical Co. of Owassa, Ala. when the bale was auctioned off at the L&N Depot by Evergreen Mayor Henry Sessions. The 665-pound bale was ginned at the Castleberry Gin Co.

Sept. 1, 1970 - The U.S. Senate rejected the McGovern-Hatfield amendment by a vote of 55-39. This legislation, proposed by Senators George McGovern of South Dakota and Mark Hatfield of Oregon, would have set a deadline of December 31, 1971, for complete withdrawal of American troops from South Vietnam. The Senate also turned down 71-22, a proposal forbidding the Army from sending draftees to Vietnam. Despite the defeat of these two measures, the proposed legislation indicated the growing dissatisfaction with President Nixon’s handling of the war.

Sept. 1, 1970 - A bipartisan group of 14 senators, including both the majority and minority leaders, signed a letter to the president asking him to propose a comprehensive “standstill cease-fire” in South Vietnam at the ongoing Paris peace talks. Under this plan, the belligerents would stop fighting where they were on the battlefield while a negotiated settlement was hammered out at the talks. This approach had been discussed and rejected earlier in the Nixon White House, but the president, concerned that senators from his own party had signed the letter, had to do something to quell the mounting opposition to the seemingly endless war.

Sept. 1, 1972 – Students in Conecuh County, Ala. public schools were scheduled to begin the 1972-73 term on this Friday, according to a schedule for the school year released by Superintendent of Education Harvey G. Pate.

Sept. 1, 1978 – The Alston-Cobb House (Clarke County Historical Museum) in Grove Hill, Ala. was added to the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage.

Sept. 1, 1978 – Lyeffion High School beat area rival Conecuh County High School, 6-0, in overtime at Thomasson Field in Castleberry, Ala. Lyeffion fullback Kenny Gorum plunged over from the three for the only score. Michael Goldthrip’s extra point try was wide. Outstanding Lyeffion players in that game included Mike Brown, Eric Finklea, Rickey Gill, Michael Goldthrip, Rickey Johnson, Donald Lee, David Mims, Herman Mobley, James Riley, Tim Searcy and Ardell Taylor. Ronny Williams was head coach, and Ed Johnson was assistant coach. Outstanding Conecuh County High School players in that game included Rickey Reeves. Donald Wiggins was head coach.

Sept. 1, 1982 - J.R. Richard returned to Major League Baseball after a two-year absence following a near-fatal stroke.

Sept. 1, 1985 – A joint American–French expedition led, by Dr. Robert Ballard and Jean Louis Michel, located the wreckage of the RMS Titanic. The wreck site is located 963 miles northeast of New York and 453 miles southeast of the Newfoundland coast.

Sept. 1, 1988 – Gov. Guy Hunt declared the Town of Castleberry as the “Strawberry Capital of Alabama”

Sept. 1, 1989 – Excel improved to 2-0 on the season with a 41-0 win over Millry in Excel, Ala.

Sept. 1, 1994 – The first ever J.F. Shields-J.U. Blacksher football game was played in Beatrice, Ala. Shields won, 20-18.

Sept. 1, 1995 – Excel opened the 1995 football season with a 48-0 win at Red Level, Ala.

Sept. 1, 1997 – The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, was announced by Buckingham Palace. In France, the prosecutor's office announced that the driver of the car, in which Britain's Princess Diana was killed, was over the legal alcohol limit.

Sept. 1, 1998 - Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals hit his 56th and 57th homeruns to set a new National League record. He would eventually reach a total of 70 for the season on Sept. 27.

Sept. 1, 1998 - J.K. Rowling's book "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" was released in the U.S. This was the first book in the Harry Potter series.

Sept. 1, 1999 - Twenty-two of Major League Baseball's 68 permanent umpires were replaced. The problem arose from their union's failed attempt to force an early start to negotiations for a new labor contract.

Sept. 1, 2007 – “Into the Wild,” a film based on Jon Krakauer’s 1996 best-selling non-fiction book of the same name that tells the true story of a young adventurer who died in Alaska, debuted at the Telluride Film Festival before opening in wide release the following month.

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